One of the most important issues related to dynamic shear localization is the correlation among the stress collapse, temperature elevation and adiabatic shear band (ASB) formation. In this work, the adiabatic shear failure process of pure titanium was investigated by dynamic shear-compression tests synchronically combined with high-speed photography and infrared temperature measurement. The time sequence of stress collapse, ASB initiation, temperature rise and crack formation was recorded. The key characteristics of ASB, such as temperature, critical strain, propagation speed and cooling rate were systematically studied. The fraction of mechanical work converting into heat, i.e., the Taylor-Quinney factor, was derived to be 0.25 to 0.55 and it is also positively dependent on the loading rate. This experiment result indicates the commonly used values of 0.9~1.0 should be re-evaluated. The measured temperature rise at the maximum stress (or before ASB initiation) is in the range of 50-90℃, which by itself is not enough to outplay other strengthening mechanisms (such as strain rate hardening). Micro damage induced by the large shear strain should also be responsible for the stress drop. The measured temperature within the ASB is about 350-650℃, whereas the material close to the ASB is also heated. About 37μs after the stress collapse, the temperature reaches its maximum, which is due to the continuous development of the shear band until macro crack formation. The observed fact that temperature rise is quite behind ASB initiation suggests that it could not be the trigger for ASB formation. Therefore, the analytical and numerical analyses of ASB initiation based on temperature perturbation or thermal softening lose their foundation.