With the advantages such as high stiffness, fracture toughness, delamination resistance, and a high threshold for damage tolerance, woven fibers composites are widely used in load-bearing and impact resistance applications. Due to the complexity of the woven composite’s geometry, it is hard to establish a clear physical model to characterize the mechanical behavior within the woven composites. Microscopic damage phenomena in woven composites such as fiber-matrix interface debonding and matrix fracture will subsequently result in macroscopic failure behaviors such as stiffness degradation and cracking. Conventional micromechanical models for predicting the effective composite material property are limited to microscale due to high computational cost, while continuum damage approaches for structural scale analysis neglect the microstructural effect. In this study, the parametrically homogenized continuum damage mechanics (PHCDM) model is developed for woven composites to investigate damage behavior across various material length scales. This PHCDM model is based on calibrating the parametric representations of the damage parameters in constitutive material laws. The effect of microstructural morphology (i.e., geometric parameters for fiber tows and matrix) on macroscopic failure behaviors and uncertainty quantification are investigated during the PHCDM model calibration process. The calibrated PHCDM model is applied in structural scale analysis to simulate failure behaviors in both macroscopic and microscopic scales.