At the atomistic level, the dynamically deformed microstructure is characterized to identify structural modifications, such as dislocations, twins, and phase transformation. The advent of these deformation modes in the microstructure can severely affect its performance. Nonetheless, the anisotropy in physical properties or contribution to materials response under dynamic loading depends not only on the deformation mode but also on their variants. Hence, to gain an in-depth understanding of factors affecting metals’ plasticity during dynamic deformation, other than structural identification, the characterization of their variants is essential. This talk will present a virtual texture analysis approach to characterize deformation modes and their variants in the molecular dynamic (MD) microstructures. The method involves the construction of a rotation matrix to calculate the angle/axis pair and misorientation angle for each atom in the microstructure. Any change in the orientation angle from angle/axis pair and/or structure type are analyzed to determine the nucleation and evolution of variants in the microstructure. The virtual texture analysis readily characterizes the phase transformation variants in select BCC metals and twin variants in different BCC and FCC systems. The virtual texture analysis also suggests the strong selectivity of the select HCP variant for twin formation in Fe upon reverse phase transformation. The application of the proposed approach for the characterization of phase and twin variants in Fe microstructure under different shock loading conditions will be discussed. Besides characterizing variants, orientation mapping also provides an accelerated and on-the-fly method for quantifying twin fractions in MD microstructures.